My T-20’s first book was Electronics Principles. The writers of the book are Albert Malvino and David J. Bates. It is around 1018 pages.
The book is about Electronics and how electrical circuits are connect and work. All the chapters are well described. And the context of Semiconductor, Diode, Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). AC Models, Voltage Amplifiers etc. are too easy to them who are not Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE)’s student. Those who has a little knowledge about physics, they also can read through out and might be understood the context. In this book, the key points are noted. I think this book can be the first choice for them who are mostly interested about electronics.
What is semiconductor?
At the very first beginning, to understand semiconductor, at first let us know why it use in electrical materials. A semiconductor is neither a conductor nor insulator. Semiconductors contains some free electrons, but what makes the unusual is the presence of holes. Free electrons are fill the holes and a new holes is created. Thus the current can flow through the circuits. It might be remember that, without semiconductor, electrical devices cannot work properly.
Many years ago, Germanium was only electron that can make a semiconductor. But this Germanium devices had a fatal flow that the engineers could not over come. Then the another semiconductor named Silicon became practical and made Germanium obsolete in most of the electronic devices.
Next to the Oxygen, Silicon is the most abundant element on the earth. But there were certain refining problems that prevented the use of Silicon in the early days of Silicon. Now a days, the problems are solved to use Silicon to make a semiconductor. Without it, modern electronics, communications and computers would be impossible.
Silicons are work through a Silicon crystal. As described before about hole, the Silicons are work. Silicons crystal are separated into four. 1. Saturation 2. Forward 3. Breakdown and 4. Reverse. These are called bias also.
There are two types of semiconductor. 1. Intrinsic and 2. Extrinsic
An intrinsic semiconductor is a pure semiconductor. To increase conductivity, semiconductors can be doped. This means, adding impurity atom to an intrinsic crystal to alter its electrical conductivity.
There are two types of Extrinsic semiconductors. 1. n-type and 2. p-type.